# Solving the Square Root Problem¶

For most of you, solving the Square Root was not easy. It was not supposed to be! You have probably not thought through problems in as much detail as this requires, and that was the point. To express your instructions to a mindless computer, you have to be very precise. The computer is not going to know what to do, it will only do exactly what you tell it to do:

Computers are insanely stupid. They are just stupid so fast, they look smart!

## Typical Answers¶

The two most common solutions I see go like this:

### User guesses¶

You set up some kind of solution where the user enters a number, and you tell them if they are right or wrong.

This is not a solution at all. All you are doing is telling the user what the square of the number they entered is, and leaving it to the user to figure out if they guessed right.

### Approach it Slowly¶

You pick some very small number like 0.00000001, and sloooowly creep up on the answer. You start at something like zero, multiply that times itself and see if you have hit the number. If so quit. Otherwise, add your small number and try again.

There are two problems with this approach.

- You are wasting a lot of time approaching the answer slowly.
- It is hard for a computer to hit the answer exactly. Computers do not do math they way humans might. Their math is limited in power and cannot express certain numbers accurately (like 1/3, for example!)

## A Better Solution¶

There are many very good approaches to solving this problem. All involve doing some simple task over and over again. We call that using a loop to solve the problem.

Here is one idea:

### Starting Guess¶

Since our solution only needs to find the square root of a positive number, let’s begin finding the square root of some number N by guessing a starting value of N/2 as our starting point. Let’s call our initial guess something easy to remember. How about guess.

### Starting Adjustment¶

We also need to come up with a number to use to adjust our guess if it is not right. This is like the second approach given earlier but we do not start with a tiny number, we start with something simple, like one. We will call this adjustment number delta.

### Check your Guess¶

Evaluate guess * guess and compare that to N. Is the result too big? If so, guess is too big. Is the result too small? If so, guess is not big enough. In either case, we need to adjust our guess by adding (or subtracting) in our delta and come up with a new value for guess.

Think about what we need to do if our guess is wrong. If we were too big, we need to subtract something to make our guess smaller. If we were too small, we need to add something to make our guess bigger. So, we have to ask a question about what happened and decide which thing we need to do. This need to make a decision is another common thing we have to do when writing programs!

## Adjusting our Delta¶

When we started this process, we set delta to one, and probably found our first guess was too small. So, we add delta to it and find out it is still too small. We keep on looping adding delta to our guess until we find out our value for guess is too big!

### What now?¶

Well, if we just subtract our current delta from our current guess, we will just bounce back and forth between our last two values for guess. One is too small, and one is too big! The answer is somewhere i the middle.

Let’s cut our value for delta in half, and try again. This time when we find the new place where one guess is too small and the next too big, we are going to be closer to the answer than we were the last time. If we cut delta in half again, and keep on doing this, eventually delta will be pretty durn small, and we might decide we are close enough!

## Stopping¶

We always need to be able to prove to ourselves that this process will eventually stop. In our case, we will stop when the answer (our current value for guess is as close as we need it to be. Engineers might pick something like “within 000001 of the real answer”. This is wrong in some sense, but not so wrong it is not usable.

You are used to this if you have ever used a calculator. You can only see so many digits on the calculator screen, and you are happy with that.

## What Have We Learned?¶

What did we learn about solving this problem?

Well, creating a set of steps that can be followed precisely is a bit hard for humans to do, but it gets easier with practice. Humans are notorious at leaving “obvious” things out, but you cannot do that when designing a solution for a computer. The computer will not fill missing steps in for you. Your steps have to be clear and complete, and you have to convince yourself, by testing them, that the steps actually give you the result you are after. That is a tall order!

We also saw the three most important concepts in computer programming. They are these:

- Do things in order, in a sequence. No skipping steps allowed in general.
- Repeat things in a loop if needed. We perform a set of steps over and over in a loop. Obviously, we need some way to stop this loop. In our example, we stop when we get an answer that is “close enough”.
- We need to ba able to ask questions about what is going on. We need to make a decision that will change what we are going to do. In our example above, if our guess was too big we need to subtract something to get a better guess. If it was too small, we need to add something to get a better guess. Decisions in computer programming are always true/false questions. We will see more on that later.

Believe it or not, if you can master using these three most basic constructs in any programming language you encounter, you can get a computer to solve real problems for you. There is a bit more to understand, of course. We need to figure out how to represent our problem in the computer in the first place, but once we know how our data is being managed in the computer, we can set up a sequence of instructions for the computer to follow to massage those data and turn them into something more useful!

Welcome to the world of computer programming!